The most controversial Jewish writer discussing the significance of the Shoah for the doctrine of God. Rubenstein rejects any notion of God acting in history. ("we stand in a cold, silent, unfeeling cosmos"). After Auschwitz only human beings can create value and meaning, and Judaism has a particular role in this renewal and reintegration. Readers should note that Rubenstein has revised this work in the light of twenty five years of further thought in After Auschwitz: History, Theology, and Contemporary Judaism, (1992).